VeChain’s Tech Deep Dive Series – Session 1, Episode 2: Embedded System Introduction

First, before we talk about VeChain Embedded Systems, let me explain the basics. I divided VeChain hardware products by 3+1. What is 3+1? 3 stands for 3 product lines The first line is a passive component (such as near-field communication and RFID components). The second line is an active component, which includes the cold chain sensor we already had, and the Bluetooth device sensor device. The third product line, which is the same active part, is the Security ID, which is part of the Personal ID. I'll be more specific in this section later. For 3+1, the part of "1" is very important. It wasn't difficult for traditional manufacturers to do something in the lab, but it is questionable whether they can bring it to mass production . VeChain has done a lot in this field to ensure this . The first is production. This means that our products can be mass-produced. The second important point is the quality assurance section. Sunny: So MP stands for mass production. QA stands for quality assurance and speaking of this, in fact, VeChain has put a lot of effort into this. I can also share the development process of various hardware or embedded products. The process is very complex.

With this picture, I'll explain it briefly so that everyone can understand it intuitively Sunny: There are also complex methods or processes that support it when you see something small like a chip or a sensor. Once a product idea is born, we will start with industrial design and then do mechanical design. For example, here are some products, these are mechanical design, industrial design, etc. At the same time, we will perform electrical circuit design and printed circuit board (PCB) design. This is the hardware wallet that our Steering Committee will use in the future. In fact, the steering committee already has it. that's right. OK, this is just the beginning. After the hardware schematic design and mechanical design are complete, a series of processes begins. The first step is PCB layout design. Start tooling at the same time. There are two forms of tooling. The first type uses the CNC format at an early stage. There are other types as well. You can start tooling yourself.

We have different designs for different products. In the meantime, we will start planning the purchase for each required part. When we build a product, we need to know the smallest details about component selection. Since there are a lot of components on this board, we want to make sure that every product has a source of purchase. They should be available for purchase and we need to make sure they are of good quality. Of course, we have to consider the volume of mass production. Yes, next we produce PCBs and Printed Circuit Board Assemblies (PCBAs). A PCBA is a PCB with components assembled. Then we do the machine assembly and make the mold at the same time. After completing the above steps, you will perform various debugging tasks such as software coding and hardware debugging.

Regarding mechanical engineering, we will conduct many reliability tests such as barrel test, drop test, mini drop test, ball impact test, temperature cycle test, etc. to ensure that our products work in different environments. Sunny: Yes. Importantly, our software validation is also a functional test of the software that can test electrical equipment at the same time. For example, it is an ESD test, as you know, ESD (Electrostatic Discharge) tests are particularly susceptible to ESD in winter. Sunny: Yes. Wearing a sweater is prone to static electricity and at this point, we need to make sure our products are not affected by this kind of damage. Sunny: Reminds me of the time we used to deal with customers. Yes. One thing to consider when creating a product is to consider the environment in which the customer or company uses the product. The environment can be very different. Jianliang: Exactly. When we do projects on luxury goods, we often take into account the pressure and temperature that the products must withstand. These environmental factors have always been taken into account. Jianliang: We will also perform various tests such as extrusion and even liquid immersion within the mechanical tests to ensure that our products, such as short-range wireless communication cards, can work normally in wet environments.

Sunny: That's right. When we receive this product, it will be certified by a third party certification laboratory. More on this later. This course involves industrial design for electrical performance testing, which we commonly call design review (DR). Typically, hardware products go through two DRs. Model prototypes, pilots and even mass production, for example. As you can see, the product goes through several stages in the design process. Sunny: That's right. We need to ensure that the entire process is manageable so that our customers get a workable and reliable product . Sunny: I also believe that this is why the companies we work with are relatively large. Jianliang: Yes. When they see our products, the blockchain is actually just one part of it.

Jianliang: That's right. The final solution should consider all aspects of the problem. Jianliang: Yes, that's right. So overall, I think the most important word to conclude all of this is “professionalism”. Jianliang: In this part, I will talk about VeChain's ability to develop embedded systems. Before going further , I would like to say that VeChain currently has 5 engineers with more than 10 years of experience in the embedded field . Some are software-focused, some are hardware-focused, and some engineers may develop both hardware and software. Of course, like I said before, I have 18 years of experience in this industry. So our technical ability is really very strong. All products to be sold from VeChain are actually designed and manufactured by us ourselves. Our mechanical designs, schematics, and even soldering, including PCB designs, are made by our hands. Sunny: Of course. What I have said so far has only mentioned the hardware part. As for software development, we have more than 3 dedicated software development engineers, who are dedicated to software development only for existing hardware solutions.

There are many microcontroller units (MCUs) in software, including 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit. Our engineers have a lot of experience in this field. As already mentioned in terms of hardware, software, and mechanics , VeChain has strong product mass production and quality control capabilities. As an additional point , any of our products are shipped with two documents. The first document is our product specification. This specification document describes the type of product and how to use it. The second document is the quality report. The quality report is divided into two parts. The first is an internal self-test report. The second part is the report of our third party accreditation lab. We do this because we are responsible to our customers and society. So when we look at this material, I'd like to use data from a compliance report written by a third-party accreditation lab . Sunny: Yes, that's right. Let's take two examples. The first example is the frequency band of a radio.

It is known that the frequency bands are different in Europe and America. Sunny: Yes. Taking RFID as an example, the operating frequency band in Europe is 865.6-867.6 MHz, while the operating frequency band in the US is 902-928 MHz. And if you sell it to Europe, selling 900 MHz would definitely be a violation. Sunny: That's right. In this case , VeChain will recommend different products to other customers Sunny: Yes, that's right. At the same time, these products comply with local laws and regulations. Sunny: That's right. This is a required specification. The second point is that since our hardware products are practical products, their materials must meet environmental protection requirements. Sunny: Yes. When VeChain releases products, they are certified to ROHS (Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive) and REACH standards by third-party laboratories . ROHS is a mandatory standard and REACH is a voluntary standard.

However, VeChain will receive both of these certifications. So the product you see here exceeds the standard requirements. Sunny: Yes, and different countries and regions have different requirements. Jianliang: Yes. Sunny: Other industry customers, such as large corporations, will also consider this issue based on their reputation. They also have new and higher demands on the environment. Or it's worth considering to protect the environment. Jianliang: If you look at these products, you can see our report. OK, now I am very proud to introduce you to the software features currently available.

Because this part is very important. For software parts, we look at the passive and active aspects. Some of the software functions are passive, such as near field communication or RFID. Standard specifications are listed here: SO/IEC 14443, ISO/IEC 15693, ISO/IEC 18092, ISO/IEC 7816, etc. I have been in this industry since 2002. This protocol source code was written by myself. For the entire protocol stack , VeChain has exclusive rights and has applied for software copyright. At the same time, not everyone sees that there is only a short-range wireless communication protocol.

We also have a protocol stack for RFID, ISO18000-63. The software protocols and software algorithms in this part were coded by ourselves. So, we have deep knowledge about software as well as hardware products, and we have put a lot of effort into these areas. Sunny: Isn't this also the result of your work experience over the last 10 years or more ? Jianliang: That's right. On behalf of the community, I would like to ask you a question. Will this part of the software code be directly accessible or available to more community participants in the future? Jianliang: Yes, our goal is to expand the VeChain ecosystem Sunny: Yes. We prefer to get more people involved. We can communicate more and share this code with members of the community so they can use the hardware. Sunny: Or maybe more secondary development.

Jianliang: That's right. Then there will be more interesting developments in different industries and different application scenarios. Jianliang: Yes, so far we have been talking about NFC and RFID, in fact, there are two more parts. One is our active device. Active devices, for example temperature and humidity sensors, encryption algorithms, and algorithms used for computing, are actually based on our own codebase. In particular , it is known that there is no encryption algorithm in the traditional Internet of Things (IoT) or the data is not processed.

Therefore, VeChain’s encryption algorithm is integrated into existing IoT devices. VeChain has done a lot of work on cryptographic algorithms. There is CryptoCore, a library of cryptographic algorithms. In fact, this library of cryptographic algorithms applies to the various languages used in PCs and also to the various languages used in embedded CPUs such as 8-bit, 16-bit, and 32-bit systems. We have a library of cryptographic algorithms that correspond to these. These cryptographic algorithm libraries are integrated and adaptable to different platforms. Sunny: This is very important. Because so far we've been talking about the traditional Internet of Things. In fact, since this is a feasible thing we need to run it first. Jianliang: Yes. However, in terms of future transactions between entities, it becomes a very important issue for digital assets and security issues, especially for cryptographic protocols .

Jianliang: Yes. This is exactly what we talked about at the beginning of the discussion. This is the path we should take, and this is what we need to prepare for. Jianliang: VeChain products are divided into three categories according to the working distance. The first category is products with a working distance of less than 1 meter. We define it as NFC or RFID, such as ISO14443, ISO15693 NFC and ISO18000-6C RFID. The second category is products with a working distance of less than 1 km. Defined as LPLAN type, such as Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, Sub 1G, LORA, etc. The third category is products with a working distance of more than 1km, such as 5C NB-IoT, eMTC, etc. GPS is a receive-only function that primarily performs a positioning function. Next episode: RFID technology and deployment.

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