Hello, good morning everybody and welcome to The Ecolinguist Let’s make an experiment today with some friends Elisa from France, Elena from Spain, and Razvan from Romania My name is Simona and I come from the area of Milan in Lombardy therefore I speak the Lombard language. I work in a publishing house and I am in charge of Foreign Rights. I belong to an association called Far Lombard which promotes Lombard Language. We translated some books among which the comic ‘Fliça’, ‘La Pimpa la va a Milan’ and ‘El Profeta’. We share and support a polynomic orthography called ‘Scriver Lombard’ which represents in a uniform way all varieties of the Lombard Language.
Each Sunday we meet online among Lombard speakers from different provinces from Canton Texin which is in Switzerland to Mantova, from Pavia to Sondri e from Dom to Novara up to Bressa and Western Trentin. This is the area of the Lombard language. But now I would like to make acquaintances with Elisa and I give her the floor. Hi! My name is Elisa and I am a French teacher. I also have a Youtube channel called French Mornings with Elisa. Very good! And now let’s listen to Elena.
Hi, I'm Elena. I have a YouTube channel called Linguriosa and I am also a teacher, but I teach Spanish. And now Razvan. Hello! I am Răzvan, I live in Romania and I am a big consumer of linguistic content. Very good! I am very glad to make your acquaintance. Let’s start with the experiment! Till now, can you hear me? Everything alright? Can you hear me well? We are ready! Very good, so. First word. It is the result of the transformation of a natural material made by man. According to how thick it is it is used to do different objects useful to man.
It has been used since ancient times it is strong and soft at the same time. it has a natural colour but it can be dyed by man. Any idea? Is it a material for making things? And that can be of different colors? Is it a natural material? Is it the name of a material? And what kind of object is this a material used for? So, it is used for bags, little bags, but also for gloves or for the…the sole of the shoes. Ah! To make clothes? And does it come from a plant? it is a material that comes from the animals From the sheep? Is this animal that is white that has a lot of hair? it can come from different animals but first of all from an animal which makes milk. Oh. And is it used, for example, to make a jacket, which are very expensive? yes, according to… if it is thick or thin different objects are made It is mainly the thickest one which is also used to make belts, bags, shoes. Is it of animal origin? Yes. Does it have hair?
I did not understand Hair? Doesn't it have hair? mmm, this I did not get.
Oh. Does it have hair?
Well, anyway… Yes, does it have hair? without… of course. The transformation that man does, it is exactly to make sure that
this material that the original material
doesn’t rot and it can be modelled it can be transformed in more than one thing and in different ways there is the very thin thin thin one and the harder one those more… and to make different objects. Have you guessed? I think so. No. It is like the skin, but from an animal and it’s used to make clothes or, well, many… I mean, but does it come from the animal's skin? Yes, precisely it is the result, the transformation of the animal skin.
Yes and it has a peculiar name. Shall we try? Would you ehm Elena, Elisa you are first… Or better we do, one, two, three. I say 1,2,3 and we show the word. Is this ok? So one, two and three. Razvan, this is wonderful! Is this the right way up ? So in French it's called (leather.) In Spanish it is "cuero". In Spanish it is also possible to say “piel”.
OK, in Romanian it's called PIELE. It's the same word for skin and the material used in clothing or footwear (leather). I understood. and in Lombard Language it is
‘Coram’ In Spanish it is also possible to say “piel”. Yes. also in Lombard the skin it is really very thin. Great! Let’s move on to the second word. The second word we are looking for it is useful for splitting, or dividing but also to block temporarily. more difficult So it is an object, an object it is useful for splitting, or dividing but also to block temporarily. It can be made of different materials
but, in general, it is hard. It exists in different sizes big and small and it is used in different handcrafted jobs. In Lombard, I do not know in your languages, but in Lombard it is also used to define a cheese cut with a particular shape. Do you have any idea so far? Is it a tool? ‘Ramienta’ ehm I do not know what a ‘ramienta’ is.
A… an object to work with, to create something. Yes, it is not to create something else but to help out in doing something therefore… it is useful it is an object useful to do something else, yes. And is it a cooking object? no no, it is mainly used by craftsmen I do not know, but in the woods, for example or by carpenters or it can be used to stop a door for example myself, at home, I may have this object to stop my door. Is it a… a tool, an instrument? I do not consider it a tool since it is an object that it is useful on its own but it is not an object which I use with my hands I put it there in order to do something else.
Very difficult… Yes. And it can be many sizes. So small and big. Is it used in agriculture? in agriculture…no…not so much mostly it can be
And is … Is the material iron? Made of metal? it can also be in metal but the majority are in wood. OK, of wood. Is it used in urban or in rural environment? ehm…I did not understand
Razvan, please say it again Is it used in urban or rural environment? it is used in craft workshops but it can be used to stop something a lorry, for example, when it is big
or to lift a wheel, in construction, when they build houses or
pieces of a house Is it triangular in shape? yes, it's shape is of a prism
with a triangular base and a beautiful sharp point. And is it put under a door so that it cannot be opened? Yes, the small one in plastic, yes. they are in plastic, wood. And for example, shoes, are there many shoes that have this on the back of the shoe? ehm..may be maybe, I do not know.
I don't know… Shall we try?
I am a little lost. So, is it a prism, a triangular prism? Yes. It is an object in shape of a prism, triangular, with a very sharp point and it is used …ehm… To break, split, ehm… divide but also to stop, for example, to stop a door. and when they put windows on it is really used by craftsmen. It is always triangular. Or another form too? It is a prism therefore… Is it in another shape or only triangular? no no no, only, only triangular.
A three-dimensional shape. A three-dimensional shape. Let’s say…ehm…there is not another shape, it is really that one… It is made of wood. Wood, plastic, maybe also iron, yes. And the largest size, the maximum size can be… how big ? I think that. It can be also big since if you need to stop the wheel of a truck or a car…. then you need this object in a quite big size. It is a difficult object, yes… Shall we try or do you need more… For example, when you cut cheese, in Lombardy, the cheese is rounded, if you cut it, each part it is a … dots dots dots… Hmm I do not know.
We'll try. ok, you can write it down
and let’s do it once you are ready. I have to look for it in … three, two, one So I think that’s the wrong word. The small objects that are used in France to wedge the door, we call it a doorstop. But it's small. And the big one, I don't know what it could be. So I put this. I think that in Spain, in Spanish, at least in Spain, it is a "taco".
It can be made of wood and it’s normally used to put under doors. I think it's called "taco". Razvan you say… Yes. I don't know if in Romania there is this triangular prism object, but the closest word I think of is RANGĂ (crowbar). Ok, in lombard it’s called
‘Qignœl’ (wedge) It doesn’t ring a bell. But in French we also have a word that sounds like Spanish. It's cleat. And maybe it's more like that then! But I'm not a wood expert. ok, let’s do this, let me show you a drawing. Let’s see what it is. It is an object…to split, divide, break a trunk, or to stop a door or to lift something… K. So, in Romanian it is PANĂ (wedge.) and in French I think there is a word. I think it is ‘coin’ A corner in French that means … It often means means a corner of a room or the street. But maybe it's a word I don't know. That’s possible. I found also ‘voussoire’ in architecture, ‘semelle.’ I do not know, I found those words.
I have another word. "Taco" or "cuña". "Cuña", yes, like this. Ah, yes, yes , yes, yes. It is ‘quignœl’ in Lombard, it sounds similar,
a little bit ok, is everything ok? Everything alright? uh là là it is really difficult So, let’s go on. This one it is easy, really, very easy. Here we are. Let’s see another word, word number three. It is an animal. Animal, animal reign. Not too big, it is small it is better not to touch it, both for it
and for you who are touching it! And therefor/therefore it can be not nice for our skin.
And therefore it can be not nice for our skin. It is an animal without tag. Shall I go on, yes? Is it an insect? It eats insects. Insects are good for him mmm, good Does it eat insects? It eats insects. I am adding another piece of information It likes water and so it likes Lombard countryside
which is full of ditches, rice fields and meadows. And is it a large animal? No, small. Very small? yes, small, small Is it an animal that flies or that walks? no, it jumps
it does not fly Is it a mammal? Is it a reptile? in between…well I am not an ethologist
I am not a naturalist Does it live near water? I do not understand. Does it live in water? Lake? Does it live by a lake? it lives next to ditches, water, eh… It is an amphibian. We said that…
yes, Elisa It’s an amphibian that jumps? Is it fat? Or is it pretty? Well, we said that its skin is irritating Well, we said that its skin is irritating but if a young girl, like Elisa or Elena, gives it a kiss, it becomes a prince.
Ok. Yes. Is this animal eaten? It is an animal, yes, an animal. No, do people eat this animal? I did not understand.
Man… does man eat this animal? ah, if man eats it… Yes. well…eh…this one, no… because it is a little ugly, a little disgusting there is another amphibian which is good yes, yes, to be eaten, yes yes yes but this one no. Here in Lombardy we do not eat it, I think… I have never heard that we eat it
but…why This animal, does this animal turn into a prince? Yes, yes.
Yes, if Elisa and Elena give it a kiss This is not possible… I am very, very scared of this animal.
…or me… ok, I think you got it now We can try. when you are ready We go: three, two, one. In French we say a toad. In Spanish it is a "sapo". And, in Romanian it is BROASCĂ (toad or frog). Very nice! In Lombard it is çat, çaton (toad.) There is also a typical dish in Valtellina, in the Lombard mountains, very good one, that recalls its shape. The word number…
four? So Involuntary reaction of our body It can be pleasant or not pleasant. Its effects on the skin are called also goose-bumps. They form when one scratches a plate with a fork or fingernails on the blackboard. Any idea ?
Nothing? Is it a reaction of the body to temperature? Yes. It is a reaction also to external or
internal temperature. OK. To the cold? when it is cold, yes, there is this reaction Is it a physical reaction or an emotional reaction? both, it can be either physical from cold, fever, or other illnesses or even a strong emotion.
And can it be seen on the skin? But it is… are we looking for a noun, a verb or…? a name,
a substantive, yes A name. And is it when the hairs stand up? yes, precisely. we use it in Lombard in singular or plural form I do not know in your language but it is really an involuntary reaction of our skin And very fast. yes, it can come and go right away There can be also trembling? Yes, true, ehm, for example to kiss a ‘toad’
this stuff can come out here on the skin. temporarily, it is a moment Can it be … can it be caused by a positive and negative emotion? Yes. When you get scared by watching a scary movie. Can we try? Want to try? Let’s try? So Three, two, one So I put two words because in French you can say either "to have chills" and the … the how … The skin is said to look like … Have goosebumps. And the hen is a little animal.
When you take off the feathers it looks like … The reaction. And so we can say having chills.
You could say you have goose bumps.
In Spanish I think it's a "escalofrío". But also, the reaction would be "los pelos de punta" or "la piel de gallina". In Romanian I think it's about FIOR or FIORI and, likewise, we can say about the skin that it is "piele de găină"("chicken skin"). Perfect. and in Lombard we say: Sgrixol (Chills) Chills of pleasure or dislike And yes yes we also say ‘capon skin’ ‘hen skin’ the 'capon' is a chicken So, we do the last one! Last word. The last word is a word that indicates
anything that we consider inappropriate and which must be rejected or eliminated.
It can be made up of extremely different substances, a mixture… and it forms even when you don't sweep, nor wash nor clean and then there's that stuff, all over there. Do you have an idea? So it is everything unpleasant and that needs to be eliminated? I didn’t understand what you said but… It is all we throw away, which is useless, which has to be eliminated, even from eating, for example. And we usually have a bucket full of this in the kitchen. Yes. in a container, we put that stuff there. And is it an object which, same, can be small or large? Yes, it is the set of many things put together, it is not a single object but the whole has a unique name, let's say… And it's also a bit subjective, right? It may be “that” for me, but it might be not for someone else.
even that is true, yes it can also be like that in technologically advanced countries
we make a separation we try to separate the materials
because we can… then they can be recycled OK, so it's waste we throw away, it can be food or non-food … have you found it?
Can it be used for compost? You can do that too, yes yes yes, with the natural part you can do that too. I think there are many names,
depending on… OK, and it's the generic name …
It's the generic name we look for the generic name
then there are the specific ones of the countryside maybe specific of the industry but we look for the global, generic name I have a question. Is that the name of the object or the name of what we put in it? it is what we put in, Then I have to change! even if, in some languages it may be the same name, but I don't know, are we there? Want to try? So three, two, one. So in French what we put … Everything you throw away and put in the trash is called trash.
In Spanish it is "basura." And, in Romanian, it's GUNOI (gunoi). Yes, I think it is all correct. I am not sure about ‘gunoi’ since I found ‘murderie’… MURDĂRIE (dirt) No… gunoi’ it is ok? GUNOI is the DÉCHETS and BASURA. Perfect! And in Lombard: Rud (rubbish) Well! We did all the words, I think,
we finished, right? Yes Yes Yes
We found everything! Bravo! You got this! It was so funny to watch you, really! So much confusion but eventually you did it! How did you feel about it? Maybe first, Simona. Simona, what was your impression? My impression is that I have some difficulties in talking with Razvan. Ok. Razvan, what do you think? It was very interesting! At the beggining, I was a bit confused but I managed to come back and to guess the other ones. And Elena, how did it go for you? At the beginning, the first definition was very difficult, but then when we asked it was really interesting. Like we can understand each other And I don't speak any French , Romanian or Lombard. So it's very interesting. It was actually very interesting to hear Lombard because it has a lot of similarities with French.
Cause I noticed that you sad the 'u' sound. But still it was not that easy. The second one was really hard for me because even in French I'm still not sure about the word now. And I almost didn't get the last one. But because I heard Elena asking the questions and also in Romanian he said 'déchets,' Razvan. So that helped. And Simona, could you tell us a little bit more about the situation of Lombard right now? Like how is it doing as a language? As a language Lombard is considered endangered by UNESCO list of languages in danger. We are noticing that there are new speakers. So young people come back to this language, trying to learn it… Through videos, through social media, We translated also the Telegram for example. We have an app with the dictionary online. So everything modern is now on and possible. And it's true that we also have some foreigners learning it. On Sundays when we speak to each other, we have also a Russian and a girl from Galicia.
So it's really fun. But the situation is not so easy but According to UNESCO, the speakers… because the area is very vast… From Switzerland to Trentino – so it's very big. The whole are is very big. So it's getting better or like it's kind of getting more interest now. To me it's getting better thanks to these new online things that we have. YouTube and courses and google meets and zoom. Possibility of speaking to one another There has bees possibility of sharing this language because We are such a diaspora that is very far from one another.
It's so beautiful to get discovered it and have possibility of speaking it again and again. We don't have television, we don't have radio so… Only a few teach this language to the children. So it's endangered. So we'll put all the links where people can connect with your organization and other Lombard speakers in the description box. So to all watching, please check it out! And yes, thank you so much again for the participation! .