George Hotz | Programming | : An L1 to L2 bridge, part 1 | cTH | Science & Technology

all right it's a stupid mac because i disabled the uh security obs doesn't ask for the microphone permission so i have to start obs from the terminal so that's why there's no audio in the beginning of my of my uh my uh also i just want to show you guys i bought this meditation headband it's an eeg uh it's made by muse they should be paying for me for this product plug but they didn't i paid full price for this on amazon well not full price i save five percent by using my amazon prime credit card also they should pay me money hello everybody hello okay so what are we working on tonight well you can know cheeky you all know the cheap beef uh i wrote this this morning let's stay cheap speculators goku wrote this poem i love i love this poem we'll do it we'll do a nice dramatic reading of it one day speculator will buy all the air not to breathe only for hodl and everyone will suffocate and finally speculator will be sad and that's how i feel about speculators uh we're not here to hit on speculators all stream we are here to actually try to accomplish something yo yo what up johnnyman9 i might even minimize chat if you guys get too distracting so uh so let me uh i'll just write in the reaping bridge so basically we have two chains while two chains no what's that that's that great song my favorite two chainz verse oh isn't that one he does with big sean and champions yeah yeah that's this is this yeah all right the east chain and the chibi chain can assume has in order to move the value move value between change we need a trusted way to get the state of each chain on to the other chain now you might think okay so you can just do uh you can just do um like a vault contract right if you put a vault contract on one of them uh but the problem is and you can sign the message both at once you could sign both the withdrawal message and the deposit message at the same time the problem is while you're the address owner and you can attest to signing that message you could just not do the deposit or even if the deposit did end up on the main ethereum chain the transaction could fail so you have to confirm that that deposit transaction is actually embedded in the other chain and the only way to do that is to have the state so when you trust a way to get the state of each chain onto the other chain uh now let's start with the l1 to l2 bridge because i actually don't think they have to be the same um if you want to get all of the value and maybe they can be the same and maybe this idea actually does worth work both ways if there's enough miners on cheapy to secure the value uh but if you want to do it it also doesn't work because it's expensive and like i don't even want to have to do one transaction per block when you look at a lot of these optimistic roll up solutions the cost is actually incredibly high on the main ethereum chain so let's just focus on l1 to l2 um so the l1 state at l1 which is e i'm just texting uh i said good i'm actually streaming on twitch right now i'll be free around um so l1 is the eth chain uh is secured by proof of work now generating a fake uh proof of work chain is both very expensive uh and also uh well let's just say he's very expensive and i think that's good enough okay so my idea is basically this deploy contract on l2 with a what do they call them uh the checkpoint hash how it works if you trust you can amend with a checkpoint hash of an eef block you can manually audit this um the same way you would audit uh the same way you would audit the contract address now anyone can submit future blocks of the chain uh block headers of the main chain the contract validates they that they are correct and have the right difficulty if someone submits a longer chain the contract follows that chain um so think about it like we are running i think like we are running a light node on cheapy itself right um i don't know how doable this is know how doable this is but it would be nice if it worked all right so you could modify geth you could put this in geth you could put some of the logic in geth you could put some of the logic in a bridge like so theoretically what you could do is you could have a um if the hash function if if this can't be reasonably uh written on uh eth on the ethereum platform we could have a special contract address special contract address on cheapy which which contains the main estate but i hope it doesn't come to that okay so you guys see what i'm doing you guys see the basic idea uh this is the bridge back uh goku wrote most of the whale gate look i like oh it was a pre-mine oh haters haters haters ah yeah achievement has a pre mine no uh how else were you gonna do you know this uh and if you have a problem with that are you a speculator or your speculator um yeah wow i feel i feel relaxed i did this the the meditation app today was really uh it was really good i liked it i've been drinking tea i'm gonna go get some more water for my tea so okay what we got to try to do is we got to figure out how to compute the ethereum hash and how to validate the block headers i have a feeling that this is much easier on bitcoin um because bitcoin i can do this with like i know what the bitcoin hash function is i looked at the ethereum hashes and they don't have lots of zeros like the bitcoin hash um like i could totally do this on on on bitcoin the other really cool thing is because chief eath is cheap and it uses cheap gas uh we can use cheap gas to to run all of this so we don't have to none of this has to run on that one my solution for l1 is different and it actually pushes a lot of the logic to l2 but the the value is actually in l1 with a with a token uh which if we do the crown cell again in the crowdsale tech um so the governance token on l1 where you can vote for a state hash on l2 this is really simple and works well uh because that that token's value is itself anchored by the l1 chain uh the l2 chain has like you can't say what its value is anchored by right now it has some minors on it um we can look at look at how we do it on miners uh yeah it has nine gigahertz which is nothing right so it's fairly trivial to 51 attack but you won't really gain anything by 51 attacking it if we do this asymmetric bridge approach so i was looking and this is what we're going to figure out uh first off we print i can't believe i did that i put it on my finger okay v and block dot items uh so this is a block i'm connected to the chibi node up here uh with web3 i just i just like the durand block uh and this is what we get okay so we have a difficulty we have a mix hash we have a parent hash i should check two blocks in order and see if things like parent hash match okay so we're both found by uh this logs bloom thing looks useless parent hash is this and this one parent hash is hex 83.

Okay so this makes sense so parent hash actually is uh the hash so that that's that's true um uh people were posting in the cheap discord about this incognito chain thing i think they think through some of this stuff medium average but it was weird it seems like goku sent this to me and he's like bro i think you're wrong i think you can do stuff without shared state but i i don't i still don't think so um but i did look at this and they had uh well so there's a lot of bridges polka dot has bridges this incognito thing has bridges uh you know optimism is trying to build a bridge arbitrarum built god knows what and there's these different approaches to it but they're all very complex what i'm trying to build is the simplest bridge you possibly can which is basically a geth light client that runs on cheap is i think the way kind of think about it right uh like a light note on cheap itself so what we have to figure out how to do is like so i have two blocks here don't be a savage i have two blocks here and i want to figure out how these blocks are in the same chain now obviously uh you know i can't look at the parent hash because there's no way to trust that but like the idea would be that the the cheapy contract itself is able to validate the that the difficulty i'll i'll write this in the readme um the key part is that the cheap e contract must be able to validate the difficult operation all right so i mean this is the kind of thing where if i probably asked someone who understood f hash uh they would know pretty quickly whether like because i know fs uses a lot of ram so what i don't know is do i actually need all this ram to validate the the headers or do i not uh does anyone know that yeah again a polka dot and this incognito thing are relying on over collateralization i definitely don't want to rely on over collateralization we are going to need an over collateralized l1 asset that secures the l2 value but the l2 value can fluctuate a lot uh the idea is the whole basic idea with cheap is that you separate value from compute right the ethereum network both does compute and secures value the bitcoin network is only value uh there aren't really networks that only do compute well i mean like at that point it's if you don't care about trustworthy aws right or or anything that can do that can do untrusted compute i mean aws is proof of authority trust right i don't even know what untrusted compute would look like but the idea is you could still have some trust on your compute but not all the trust does f hash need to validate the header so i'm not really sure let's see if someone wrote a good medium post on this validating ethereum blob headers okay i need to verify the block header hash was created correctly you yeah okay so these yeah the consensus of validators i don't like this idea of consensus of validation right the beauty of this because i'm relying on the proof of work and ethereum if i could make this work i wouldn't need any consensus everybody could submit these blocks everybody could submit anyone could submit future block headers in the main chain the contract validates they're correct if someone submits a longer chain the contract follows that chain uh which is like a you know block reorder right so what's beauty what's beautiful about this is the chain has to be contiguous and the chain also has to be difficult which is pretty much the same thing that geth is checking all right to be fair people can submit wrong state and i would have to think through the the consequences of that and it may require more block headers right you know when you deposit into a uh into like a like an exchange you have to wait for 30 block headers you'd have to wait the same number of block hitters here but it would be basically the same thing why don't i use binance smart chain do that's why i get a vpn and i sign up for a binance account uh and then i trust that binance look they probably won't exit scam right but yeah i mean finance smart chain is the centralized version of this you can do this on an exchange right what's the bnb price is it is it high coin gecko is my new go-to oh oh my god look at all that fake finance value damn bnb was the coin to buy yo if i could just go back in time a month and put my net worth into bmb oh i'd be rich is this what like you know what the nice thing about cheap is you're never going to see this you know that's half the reason for the primo if cheap eat ever becomes expensive more than one over one gb is actually on an exchange now uh we can look at the price of cheap um so so so part of the reason for the uh pre mine as well is to make sure cheap you see this this here is going to be the biggest cell wall you've ever seen uh because cheap eat is always worth one one thousandth of an inch now the free market can let it fluctuate less than that but if it fluctuates more than that you're gonna you know it's really gonna have a lot of pressure it's gonna have a lot of downward pressure uh to stay to stay at this oh if you put your nowhere than bnp they would have exit scam i'm not that rich guys i doubt it y'all know i'm a no coiner um yeah 46 billion i i think uh i'm a no coiner i just have some cheap eat it's actually goku's cheapie uh because you know i'm a no coiner uh you know someone someone commented on the discord they were like hold a goku and geo out of the same private key i'm not touching this crypto man no coiner this guy uh maybe i'll i'll i'll have some cheapy because it's not a speculative asset george please shell chain link uh yeah why is poc oh my god poc is a bad term on discord twitch oh that's sad oh that's sad um i i agree with the sentiment of goku's poem one day speculator will buy all the air not to breathe only for hodl and everyone will suffocate and finally speculator will be sad that's my problem with speculators what's a bipoc i don't care if it has to do with any of that like you know that like like like like all that all that new all the new all the new racism language i'm i'm out on that i'm out on that you know here's my brain and here's the part of it that i want to devote to that and it's like you see the space between my two fingers is zero but i do want to devote some of my brain to figuring out how to validate that generating that block from that block was actually difficult i've never heard of a bipark in my life a boring inexpensive proof of concept i like that i like that if someone if someone was making a startup and they had a buy pack that sounds like a good investment a boring inexpensive proof of contact that's what cheap eat this you know what i'll say this i'll make i'll make a political comment i'll make a political comment you know what's so nice like like you couldn't avoid part of your brain being taken up by trump right i really like i don't have a strong opinion on the whole thing but you couldn't avoid part of your brain because someone would have to tell you some oh do you hear what trump did today and now no one says that anymore it's great it's great ah we can we can like not hear about it you know that's right block quick super light yeah this is what i want except instead of a crane constrained device it's the ethereum blockchain ethereum header receipts root field so the merkle root is that the state route okay let's let's just google these terms and see if we can find the algorithm with how they mix the state root the mix hash and the hash here we go maybe this how does aetherium work anyway greedy heaviest observed sub tree uh no i can't reject transactions it is decentralized and hypothetically the price of cheap eat could go above one over one thousand each uh but you know i'll put downward pressure on it you're just giving me yes you you're just donating to the cheap ethereum foundation if you do that so let's keep the price at a good reasonable one one thousandth of an eighth um and look can you bust through the wall yeah maybe and then you know that's when it's four o'clock you know four o'clock c flip dot x y z all right let's try i got my wallet here please connect your wallet connect wallet um here i have this account connect wallet i have this account which has 1.1 ethernet let's let's go all right 1.1 cheapies a game outcome flip them yolo see that's what's great about cheap you can just yolo onto some weird ass website i lost that i want to win did i win oh wait do i have to battle against is this high battle against someone else seat flip let's go let's go let's go let's go i bet more this time i'm gonna win it all back no this is supposed to not be a degenerate stream boys i shouldn't be playing c flip yo remember that stream where i played that coach yeah i won yo i love this oh this is the best thing ever oh yes wait where's my money i'm the champion now just wait and let the money roll in oh now we're talking hey you guys should come play c flip i lost twice at the low but i won one at the expensive um yo whenever they're adding batting to smash 64 let's go let's go let's go um i'm kind of sick of pants i might go put some shorts on i've been wearing pants all day i'm just kind of sick of them all right i i still didn't get an answer i got distracted thanks chat by c flip all right all right uh should we should we do it should we do it three minutes should we do an eeg meditation we'll see if i'm doing well i got i got i gotta pee and take my pants off put some shorts on and we'll do an eeg meditation and we'll come back to that yeah yeah we wearing some shorts boys who wear some shorts all right no no we'll save eeg meditation for a little bit later and uh then we'll go got it we got we got to figure something out okay we haven't made any progress on this very difficult problem yet the idea is to get a hash value first create an rlp to lower the steps to calculate a block hash hashing the above object refers to the block hash return to validate keep only the inputs that are in a block header and reorder it as below parent hash uncle hash that's a lot of stuff rlp in code okay yeah so i know optimism wrote this stuff um optimism wrote rlp on chain uh full disclosure i did contract work for optimism i think they're really cool i think they got the real technology i think cheap ease is just the cheap technology but you know sometimes cheap technology does well you know what's it a buy pack it's a it's a boring inexpensive proof of concept so they wrote today libraries yeah i see look they wrote rlp oh sick look they wrote rlp on here this is amazing optimism's already written a lot of the stuff let's make sure we're an mit license yo yo these guys man i think this is most of what i need if this is gonna work okay so our rlp encode that but nothing here is difficult so far so where's the difficulty come from oh should we actually try to do this this is the session on the card all right let's go uh rlp encode python pip3 install rlp okay i already have our all paid cool uh python rlp well let's first get these things that we need what do we need okay parent hash uh uncle hash what the what if i don't have any uncle i want three uncles yo i'm uncles over here i got zero uncles um coinbase what's a root i'm always rude if anyone questions that i'm always rude okay so coinbase i assume is minor and this does not there's got to be some code for this can someone just find it uh geth block rlp hash is that same one that i found yeah how many viewers you got do i have shot three claim four shots or you know lp i got a patricia oh my god there's like these rns's too i don't even know what those are is vrs how to talk to my uncle and he agreed that my privacy about the only thing i need back truth over fame you know i respect the blatant uh this is called uh you know beefing with drake hour uh that's where we beef with drake and talk about how drake used to be good and how drake should start rapping you know good again start rapping well yeah um evm illustrated is this gonna have anything i want i heard the barber shop home to great debates all the time who's the best mc anas big sean andre wallace tyler macmillan i got love for you all but i'm trying to murder you can't say that one trillion marker cap yo i don't i'm a no pointer yo check this out my aunt sent it to me it's a little drone let me turn it on oh yeah oh it's flying it's flying oh i flew for a little bit let's try again let's try again no it's off now the battery i might have to charge it i think it needs battery so we charge the drone ah this doesn't look that useful either v r and s okay those are properties of a transaction you know i bet optimism would just know this let's just ask that don't look easy information required to describe the drive block header okay ah here we go block header okay parent hash what's an armor the hell is an armor 32-bit hash which combined with the nonce ah okay okay so these are the block headers i think we can we have to put in the block header when combined with the not okay the difficulty is all is all contained in the a so i'm confident we can make we can do block header validation that shouldn't be hard what i'm not confident in this can we validate mix hash nonce what's an armor is that did they change the name from uncles because no one like like what is armor it's like rushing for uncle or something they're not intentionally making stuff harder they're definitely not uh okay ethereum mix hash mix hash is actually calculated from nonsense intermediate value when validating pow proof of work with the hashimoto algorithm okay hashimoto lite draft pie at hash utils from ethereum import utils sure it's not that hard to find big envy into it um rlp you chose pig and the intent oh what a nightmare keep install ethereum details okay how do i import ethereum utils is that the from ethereum ship deprecation warning this project has been renamed to athels work big ending great camp uninstall ethereum utils yes okay install your test okay are you happy now no module named xutils from f underscore utils oh gotta make it an underscore okay all right now i have hashimoto light let's go over here and get the hashimoto light hashimoto light block number cache header hash nonce okay so if i want block number i can just get that that's just block number i don't actually need to lock that i don't know what the cache is and i don't really know what the header hash is one of these things called the header hash paradash maybe there's some documentation on this i don't know what any of this is it seems complex damn it why they make so hard name cash is not defined um i have to be an example of this right can someone link me to an example banana pudding thank you for gifting subs you know if you give subs i'll answer one question do you want to move my head isn't this what i'm trying no this is a transaction no if it doesn't have mix hash it's not we need to validate that there was actually difficult and actually i read something that was very concerning uh mix hash is actually calculated from non says intermediate value when validating pow with hashimoto algorithm but this calculation is still pretty heavy and a node might be ddosed by blocks with incorrect nonsense mixat is included into block to perform lightweight proof of work actually here i can just install pi ethereum can i we can start with that um from thai etherium from ethereum for it checkpoint are the odds that's going to work no module named ethereum step 3 uninstall pi theory i want to install this crap you might try the pi evm never mind i'm gonna have to figure out how to just write this okay we have cashimoto lite so block number cash get this get cash he calls his other function mccash oh i have pi dash don't i okay so i know what i want for mccash yo do you have a big cash today get cash block number cash seeds epoch length unicode objects must be encoded before hashing yo make your work with python 3.

Cash by seed is an order decked using this max items crap it is i don't think we need any of this cash by seeds yet that's just for speeding things up wait actually all i really need is nick cash all right oh my god mccash takes forever oh my cash oh yo look at how long mick cash takes this is hopeless this is hopeless boys is hopeless well let's finish it anyway but that's that's very discouraging okay well we know what non says we have nonce i can just say blocks of nons we have cash we just need header hash which is header hash is it statement it's not ash sheets root parent hash oh no what's header hash mining hash what is mining cash oh mix hash maybe okay it outputs the mix digest which does not match the mix hash let's figure out what it actually checks okay it confirms that the mix digest equals the mix hash and it confirms that the result okay so this isn't right we have to find the header hash and let's not let's actually you know not use this block let's use fork block okay uh print blocks okay and the nonce is just something we put in there so we can do a big search who's being a hater who's being haters stop fighting with each other you you you get blocked we don't like haters around here man this streams for people trying to do things you know haters don't want you to do things haters want you to haters man let me tell you about haters you know likely haters find out about the pre-mine and haters are like yo he's learning dumb patrol pump and dump but the reason haters think that because that's the hater mind you know like haters think like other haters you know that's how they think but i'm not a hater i'm with lex friedman about love we gotta spread love we gotta spread cheap eats cause we gotta pump pump pumps so i can now i'm playing guys i'm playing we can joke about it it's funny man it's funny i get rich it's funny i get a rolls royce it's funny you know but really though if you're not having a good time get the out of cheapies and get the out of my twitch channel that's right this guy's having a mental breakdown you have a tiny crown next to your name so you're spared ah okay what is the mining hash and where might i get hash of the mining header oh well what is the mining header what are we doing today we're working on the first part of bridge but considering that cash takes that long on my lightning fast m1 chip i don't have high hopes but maybe there's hope maybe there's hope we'll have to look more into what hash and moto is oh i think that's even just to compute the mix hash that's not good so probably what we're going to have to do you know what we could do we could fork death we could fork cheapy geth and add a special deployed contract it's a little annoying it's a little annoying because it would actually be a hard fork or soft fork i don't really know the difference yo yo i got some avocados here that look ready for eating let's eat this avocado let's get a little let's get a little avocado out get a couple chips out you know we'll have a little party oh wow mini cotto i got these mini avocados they were five for like 15 for five dollars and they have mini seeds in them they're really cute yeah let's make a little i'm sorry you can't see me right now but i'm doing a little cooking you know gotta eat this avocado's not as ripe as the other avocado i'll upset this avocado i don't want it it needs to be right this one feels right these little avocados take so much effort to cut though all right what else are we going to put in our wok i saw the avocados i couldn't resist wow we're really uh we really don't have much else in this fridge do we like someone stole my food just all my food now we got avocado chips oh goku's a smart kid man you just sent me one seat yo i'm a no coiner i'm gonna send it to the zero address now i'm gonna gamble it on on on seat pool let's see whatever i'm a no pointer i don't believe in money yo but when we buy the rolls royce i'm gonna deploy rice coin and there's going to be one rice coin and if you ever gather the whole royce coin it's redeemable for a single rolls royce but i'm always going to hold one of them what do you guys think about that yeah we're gonna be one rice coin and it's it's redeemable for for a real roller's rice great great you guys got to root for the cheap crowd salad all right roy's coin no there's a lot of little pieces of a rice clam like you can buy and trade your ice cream and you can say you own like 1 10 000 of a rolls royce you guys know my favorite crypto right you guys know you guys know which one's my favorite let's go on coin gecko i think it's the third biggest crypto it's the third biggest crypto coin gecko no no not finance coin wait holy wow finance coin's the third biggest crypto i'm polka dot i tried to understand polka dot i tried for like 30 minutes it was hopeless um aren't those the people who lost all the money in the multi seg regardless my favorite trip though is actually number five now it's this one tether it's great it's it's worth a dollar everyone knows that that's what the meme says look at those those is a stupid investment sorry ilana sorry to hate on your doge but doge is dumb to the basement that's what does going watch i'm gonna get death threats because i said bad things about doge and that's why i'm a no pointer i root for all you equally i'm sorry that i hate it on doge doge is a great toy it's just as valid as all the other coins omar avocado um what do i think of rust i think it um takes a really long time to write anything in the rush wait is tether going up wow that was some expensive tether look at that tether rim tether had an up all right we still need to figure out what this mining hash is result is basically wait by iterating wait never mind and this doesn't look hard at all wait this looks great if that's really all i have to check wait oh this might be super easy then yeah i mean this bridge should be totally trustless if this is correct i think this might actually be super easy let's try something okay so well now first actually let's let's make that match mix hash we have to figure out how to compute this mining hash but okay okay i have hope again boys i have hope again result matches the block difference yo you guys send your seats to each other spread seat love okay header hash i'm gonna figure out how to compute header header hash mining hash the hash used for proof-of-work mining mining hash so it's interesting if mix hash is actually just a function of nonce and that's what requires this stupid cache yo if this works out to be possible the people who design this are like next level geniuses like that they could actually make a hash function that was both memory intensive to brute force but then fast to validate once you have the magic thing which seems to be mix hash i hope that's what it is then this is all doable and we're rich and by rich i mean it's gonna work you know because you can't someone's gonna be like oh geohe was gonna get rich get up he's speculating i would never speculate i'll look like a speculator i'll smell like a speculator actually i do know i have one acronym and after i sit down i'm going to tell you you know the song airplane by uh b.o.b and eminem and hayley williams i think it was that song where eminem says and show them i made something of myself and not just tried i feel like a lot of people on hacker news they tried and they failed now they're hater and that's where haters come from you've been rolls-royce you know what once upon a time i heard charlie miller say ever since they came out with aslr exploiting and everyone in the community was like charlie miller's noob aslr so easy but now they have like 17 million protections i'm out i'm out i guess i'm just the next charlie miller oh common oh a common one was full of haters man and the column it wasn't even full of good haters it was for pretty uninformed haters the haters used to be more informed but i can respect intellectual haters who get their facts straight you want room look i'm a drake hater right i think drake used to be a great rapper and then i think drake fell off but during beef and with drake hour i say very concrete reasons you know let's let's look at the lyrics to tootsie slide do you want to dance with me no i could dance like michael jackson i could give you thug passion it's a thriller in the trap where we you get it because michael jackson wrote thriller oh that's some nicki minaj level lyrics yahoo answers boys all right i shouldn't be yelling so much we gotta we gotta call we gotta calm down looks like miss swift said okay mining cash mining hash of the mining header how do i get the mining ash you know what what if we just not do that and we just try to like you love it this one where's header oh header so that'd be mining hash okay but the blockheader includes man i wish i had more avocado maybe ethereum tester knows how to do this so oh you say use get work well i mean but get work's only going to give you the current the seat has used for the dag the boundary condition um we can try it i actually don't think this is going to work because i didn't start it with mine this isn't going to work yeah you have to start with dash dash mine for that to work i know because i just wrote a mining pool um nothing is deprecated in favor of get block transaction from block wait for transaction receipt give an rlv of a block at her they don't make this easy what if i don't have any uncles look header builder so guys can you help me and find an example of this oh oh hell yeah this looks nice all right all that imports then you can use the block header goes left foot slide right foot slide can't go either way but either way we about to slide can't this will slide yeah i can't wait this one's the drake sucks we gotta do eg meditation this doesn't match which is that oh this is my block okay oh oh that doesn't match okay cool all right so we need to get those two things to be the same let's try some stuff all right well we know what parent hash is we know we can get parent hash from block parent hash i have no idea how to get uncle's hash we know how to get coin base coinbase is just called minor right i'm going to keep the two bites around that one uh state route it's called stay roo we don't need two bites for that transaction route here seat route okay wow that's a number uh okay i don't know about that blocks of difficulty this reminds me this is very similar to the stream where i sent the bitcoin cash uh block number block extra data mix you can use that same bloom is an int256 now we'll just use big endian to empty uncle's one oh there's already bites are they bites no they're not this that should be okay serialization failed because of coinbase they want bytes why can't i do two by four minor oh that's probably not an actual end it's probably a string holy i got it right look at that it matches i guess the uncles have the same hash because uh oh here we go shot three uncles okay it turns out yeah yeah they have the same hatch because there are no goals oh that's sweet man quality ish okay so that's the block header and that gives you the block header hash it just worked all right we have more chips we're out of avocado let me see if there's any more ripe enough avocados for slices this one's somewhat right rest not right be right gonna be right now yeah last avocado could be a little bit more ripe that's what i just said i had to judge this avocado gotta eat bro you know consume food these should be this great subreddit called consume product now it's full of right wing people but it used to be great um then reddit banned it because they were making fun of like there was like an ad for nike and then it was like making fun of like a 42 year old guy who's really happy that he got his nike sneakers or they were making fun of like adults who bought 500 star wars lego sets i'm like i'm all for buying 500 star wars lego sets but i'm also all for being made fun of as an adult who buys a 500 star wars lego set if you bought that lego stuff as you saw in the app that's free should be made fun of oh the nsa is with the text well let me see what my my bandwidth actually is doing okay on that no it's bigger no but like you guys saw what matched right like that just worked okay so that's a walk in here that's great but this doesn't actually get us closer to to what we want we need mining block header there's gonna be something pretty close to that i bet just like without the mix hash here mining header yeah look at that you ask for it you get it oh man if this just works i'm gonna be so happy we're gonna throw a party mining header mining header api is not defined all right the hash function is the same obviously they're not going to match but that's okay because we're going to see if this oh man so i'm looking at buying some land and i went my dad to buy to look at the land and um i had some codes to get onto the land and i was like it's an old code but it checks out when the gate opened um now that's the real magic that we want to work oh i think i can just put that in as uh as mining hash now yo you know what else i love jim can't swim true crime i've been watching true crime videos you know all right fingers crossed those are going to match go ahead compute you're huge stupid no they don't match so it's still wrong nope i comment we figure out how to unemploy people not employed people humanity is going to become obsolete watch that cgp gray video humans need not apply if i could short humanity i talked to lunch about why declines happening in america and like the most convincing explanation i have is here's the people who stand to make money from the decline of america and here's the people who stand to make money from the ascent of america economic incentives bro it's sad but you know it's true okay i don't get it mix digest okay put the nonce in the nod says how many bits one two three four five six seven eight bytes yeah so i guess they figure you can't actually have to go more than that but my mix die just doesn't match oh wait no but no no i'm printing the mix we expect this to match that sadly it does not all right maybe i'm getting trolled on the make cash maybe my cash is wrong i need cash cash bytes cash size get cash size block number oh wait make cash bytes oh i have to get cash size what maybe the cash was the wrong size get cash maybe this stuff was in that function that i didn't copy correctly and now i'm yoloing what okay he's going out of the page we'll cut our harsh recursion yeah i worked really hard to get the mining header doesn't that count for something we need to check pal yeah no no no no checkpoint junk hi ethereum wow vitalik wrote this stuff years ago oh here we go this okay cash seeds make cash block number cash by seed length cash but what doesn't even look real i don't get it it looks like i can just call make cash no but then this is being called with two shits function takes exactly one argument together okay so i guess the one argument i assume is the block number well that doesn't work you've tried this mining hash is not defined but i had the one with my mining hashtag no actually is it different each time was it different well that's real junk box not different each time it's the same why is the mix digest changing some days i hope i'm gonna look over at you guys and you guys are gonna be like george here's a link to fix your and i'll be so happy that i have chat here with me but um please fall asleep so i can take pictures of you and hang them in my room so when i wake up i'll feel like everything's all right you are still here i am still happy you are still smiling and laughing you are still just the only thing everything i need in my life well you know what we have the mining hash now let's just try we don't actually need to do this i don't really care about this i only really care about the thing that's in that second stack overflow post this so if it's really this uh tech and sha-256 are the same thing so can i do cat cat yo if this works mining hash plus uh we just want to see a lot of zeros uh plus nonce no not just nonsense block nonce plus block mix hash not a lot of zeros all right so that's assume that's what's out from this thing and by the way i guess i'm not really sure what is this oh i guess i can do this i mean it doesn't matter it's the same thing but any mining energy so that doesn't matter um all right let's just quickly try this on an old block in case we start to see lots of zeros i don't see lots of zeros oh you know what i kind of like that mining header thing sure you know what it's almost as bad as haters taps we made tabs okay it did not look this easy then again these things don't matter it's stupid cash which takes forever and there's still a bug wow there are many blocks but there's only one genesis plot keckack is shaw three right uh let's just i mean we can finish that out with that with that zero with that divided by thing because i don't know maybe when things divide they don't like okay result is less than let's encode that why do i make that two bites and how many bites is it okay exactly one of the past values can be specified no see how much shorter that one is than that one or actually we can even just see hashimoto function there we go oh oh did i mistype my parens they might have mistyped the parens look at that look at the difference gotta be subtle boys okay they shot the hash with the nons backwards mix extend serialize hash s plus c mix oh that doesn't look good it doesn't work it's a data set here's make cash dataset is probably the dag file oh oh no this is good because this mix digest is the mix okay okay we have hope what's sha 3 5 12 is that defined find here of course i can't import that looks like they're just in hash lip okay so it looks like what i can do all of this graph and say sha 3 256 uh mining hash plus nonce minus -1 we call that s and then if i do a shot 3256 s plus uh block mix hash call that hh fingers crossed boys and supported types for hashtab hash and oh uh digest doesn't look like it has a lot of zeros on it but oh okay this seems doable right because c mix is just a mixed digest so i don't know why my mixed eye just doesn't work but i have that this is gonna work i believe boys i believe that god has a plan for all of us i believe let's try an older block which has a higher difficulty now you see how short that is compared to that so it's not that we're still doing something wrong uh maybe we get rid of this you know it's it's it's uh hashes so we do anything slightly wrong it doesn't work and it only has to be less than it doesn't work um i mean something's clearly wrong with my header still so yeah okay maybe we maybe if we can't make this work then we still don't understand what we're doing because this should work but then we can make if we can make this if we can make this work then this whole thing is doable and i'm so bullish on the cheapy project and my my my death implementation my ethereum based gaff light client um if i can't make this work then uh like theoretically i guess they could lie about the mixed digest and we'd have to do the the math on that because you can put anything there but that should still make it fast to verify because yeah getting a shaw with ah how do i pad this actually really what i want to do is do big andy intent let's just do that don't trust that yet it's also for the hh needed have okay so this needs to be smaller than that which isn't happening right now but also my mixed digest doesn't match and also my mixed digest is not consistent okay my mining hash is though right yeah this doesn't equal that how is this not the same every time which which of these functions is is not uh all right all right all right good good good we got a link from someone here mind pounds okay okay so yeah that's that's right cash get cash block number okay let's let's copy this whole get cache function maybe it's uh useful in a way we don't understand order dick does not define collections important words from pi apache import epoch length all right we don't want to use shitty ass oh no we want to also import make catch buttons and we'll also import hashimoto light matches no of a different error all right you look i thank you chat you were useful oh this is the new one from pi evm okay um hashimoto live big ndm two inch that's good oh i guess i should remove this here that crap make my parens face the right way no it doesn't work don't work it doesn't work mining outputs of mixed digest not equal to mix hash does output change the result is the same oh wait i think it's consistent now c515 c7 a1 c515 c7 a1 okay okay well that's definitely doing something different which is great mining output should be mix hash block number cash which is get cash block number i copied all that mining hash should be a hash 32 you know what do this right check pack uh all right check that blocks of number this is just called mining cash hash block sub nonce lots of diff difficulty um i don't know i just guess at that i never know how to actually do that oh block difficulty checkpow hey hash 32 is not defined okay where's the stupid type come from from f typing import 32.

Okay cool key error difficulty difficult not difficult b difficulty name validate length not defined okay well those functions are stupid okay well we got a validation error that's great how could it be wrong code hex is not defined there's a code hex it's for an accutance mix hash mismatch okay um i have a theory let's flip the nonce around not right expected that actual that why doesn't this work could i be computing the mining cache wrong i don't really think so because i copy and pasted this almost exactly but who knows let's get rid of this stupid hash function we don't use look at that actual that okay all right how much of that is the cash so i guess if we only have to make the cash once for the block number the whole delay is in that yeah which is good because if the delay wasn't in that we'd have a problem like i don't know how much of the of the work is actually in the proof of work oh just because it's bothering me even if i need two spaces that's a good space um why doesn't that match we solve this mystery and you know we can join the scooby-doo squad uh why does work you know what let's just download this pi evm i believe oh wait is this mining header api thing important oh maybe i ignored this no that one is a block header api so i don't know what that means it's just a type so okay this can't be totally wrong because my block hash is correct the only thing i can think is that my mining hash is wrong maybe this abc thing matters without mixation nonce which can act as a temporary class derived from mining header where we add those two new ones okay and this doesn't look wrong it literally looks like this is just that but yeah it matches perfectly right what's missing all right let's figure out where they use mining ash understanding of the mining process okay you can see they're validating the work here we go mine pow-nonce read this function maybe we'll learn something it's just passing mining hash right through yeah this doesn't do anything so it's not even a small number okay so this is totally wrong still what am i doing wrong boys who knows mining cash there's a finalized block do yeah the only thing i can think is like there's another like thing you have to do like you can't just call mining hash or something you know where is this actually being set i don't see it unless that's actually a block oh yeah yeah so it's literally just blocked out headed out mining hash it's just this crap which is exactly what i copied let me make it a property called the bites maybe i should call it hash 32 i don't think it matters remember all right let's put those validate lengths back in um the only thing i think is that one of these lengths could be wrong okay let's do length of mining hash length of mix hash length of knots 32 32 8 that should be right again i think that maybe the nonce is backwards because i know i saw that no off with the encouraging of drug use drugs are bad kids you all think i'm on drugs one of these days one of these days i'm gonna take the drug test out and i'm gonna do the drug test but only if someone will bet me ten thousand seats ten ten thousand seats that aside from marijuana i pass i pass any drug test you throw at me you're lucky you're a subscriber bro drugs are bad i did i were out of red bull today too so i don't know if that shows up in my drug testing but you know something nice about doing crypto and drinking a red bull hmm how often do i smoke weed honestly i might not even fail for weed when's the last time i smoked i don't know like a week ago i want a road trip smoke a lot of weed oh wow i just keep throwing all the tea bags in the same glass and then pour the water in and then i get super tape super tea yo i gotta get an espresso maker all right why is this failing what am i doing wrong let's find out i didn't i didn't mess up right i'm actually just gonna do this just just in case somehow i managed to mess up no i got the same okay oh this is interesting there to make cash they're calling is actually not on the block number so that is why that was different i mean i worry that just maybe okay maybe the cash is wrong they're doing it by epochs which i guess changed my lengths are correct i got rid of that nonce reversal share right validate seal header block number header mining hash header mix hash her nonce header difficulty well that's actually interesting i can probably call it with that right can i not specific mining has a property just in case i'm doing something wrong i called it headache right i did uh the one thing i had to change was property okay wait what now it expected something else it's different it computed the same thing but it expected something different which is weird could this be indian okay my block cache still matched should i save that doc yeah oh this is from the other block let's go back to that block to change what i expected which is weird okay instead of saying header mix hash i say block mix i get something different i something entirely different there i'm getting something different every time when i do block mix hash a e098 oh wait no that's expected oh okay i see so that's actually just it's changing again yeah okay something's back to it changing you want to do that it doesn't change okay well we're on to something now how are those different cert header block number equals block number insert my hash equals at our mining ash fine uh the difficulty shouldn't even come into effect certain header nonsequence block knots all right and now it's back to expecting something different every time okay something's just bugged here i get three fas there but now if i add in this assert it changes yeah this is okay the cash hash is what's changing no this shit's just non-deterministic to some serious bugs like something's just not being initialized oh my god okay where's this hashimoto light function come from this is some you guys saw what i was doing right i have a problem with the pi eth hash algorithm yeah okay we have pi eth hash as a scam pip3 uninstall pi f hash okay three install pi a hash look at this bug which requires blake to be pie it's different every time okay this looks like to me uh where's the pie evm how are they doing it that seems okay okay let's just do pip install pi evm okay yeah maybe this is the maybe i i don't know what blake 2b is let's look it up and see if this is going to cause the problem because i feel like i was trying to install this before and it was complaining about requirement already satisfied s hash oh using pure python okay this seems fine let's just not use this stupid pie hash crap i assume this didn't change that full size is not defined i don't know if this is going to work from aetherium f utils i said from that utils import star great it doesn't work this is that hash you tells is there an attaching here no they got rid of it i don't know why i wonder if this blake 2b problem is the same so not currently take into account pip three uninstall pi evm typically install pi f hash okay pi works and put hash motor light back here why can someone please tell me why it's non-deterministic the cash hash is the same cash so big cash is cash bro do more rap and the style will light it up nope um goku may be sleeping cash bro i don't get it why is it different why is it non-deterministic it's making me cry okay well that's clearly broken then because like how can it be yeah let's figure out how to get these functions so i assume they're in eth hash uh utils had shoe tails here we go okay it's the same one as before right okay that wasn't the problem serialize hash the serialized hashtag that's interesting furious oh that's interesting namin codent is not defined uh yo could this be a problem because i'm on uh i'm on an arm like it almost seems like a library doesn't work right important empty code hex try it on x86 yeah i can i'm gonna try an x86 uh i got a box in a sec uh let me just let me commit this and then we can we can check um it's one of goku's cheap boxes oh what did i want joe this is like a sex that's that is i worked so hard it wasn't my four boys i run an x86 vm yo someone's gotta fix their someone's gotta fix their i just wasted an hour cause i'm on an m1 oh we're using the good microphone why are we using the good microphone yo that's a good microphone now real think of that that better like the good microphone it's native arm sounds better all right well that was that was a you know you know all right we'll develop it here a waste of time goku i'm using your box let's go box hmm arm wow my right we'll go back to the mic you can't have good arm you can't have good mic you have that mic yeah okay oh really though like did you just did you just waste forever on yeah okay and you see our reel is now smaller than needed but unfortunately this doesn't work shut down okay so it's not even my bug man like look if i made a bug i'm the first guy to own up to it i'm like yo guys i wrote a bug gotta write a book what the hell did i do wrong just works on that computer not this one elon tweeted about me you mean recently or a long time ago oh yeah i know elon tweeted about me yo elon if you ever want to chill i'm down let's hang out i can show you a world next time i can show you a world of do you want to see a world of crypto pumping you know show you know you found the doge like you want to see a world of magic elon yo hit me up i would should talk about self-driving cars but it wouldn't even be fun uh i show you on a magic world of d5 man am i a crypto ball uh i'm a usd bear you know i'm bearish on fed coin you all know i'm bearish on fed coin all right let's figure out how to make these d serialize and serialize hash functions work these might be key code reading it i'm not so sure all right let's find the source code for pi f hash when i think of china's virtual currency um i mean i feel like the chinese government is competent you know uh so i think that they're that they're you know their their their coin will be better man a better run than our coin i mean what they just they just minted seven trillion coin good uh hash let's take a look at this we're not going to use this computer anymore this is computer 80d affects working memory and recall do i struggle with those guys what did i tell you about 80d if you don't believe in add you can't have it i remember that i recall that you know some people believe in it some people and you know it goes even further than that like some people believe that they're a victim and they're a victim and some people don't believe they're a victim and they're not a victim and what's the difference between the people it's all about what you believe man narrative defines reality yo i'd just be some wacko saying wacko if i couldn't make code that i worked about the oracle problem i think larry ellison's gonna die i don't know what else to say no if i make this work we don't need any oracles we can do l to l2 trustlessly i think i mean we'll have to do a little we'll have to write a little white paper showing that it's actually good but i think it's good we just need to make this one thing work you see that have needed thing yeah forget any of this crap you need to make this have have-needed thing thing work and if we can do that uh we're good okay let's figure out was hashimoto here we go oh my far are so okay here we go hashimoto light great result is outdoor results i know usually i read code in uh here we go compute someone just write a white paper on this oh it's a new algorithm now they changed algorithms a memory hard to compute memory easy to verify oh this is great yeah memory easy to verify oh my god i wish people didn't write things in uh math it's written in math why didn't you write it in python hmm okay original hashimoto shot three nonce plus header double shot 3 mix quick calc full days okay here we go hashimoto okay so they're both outside the only thing is that this is after serialize hash and this is before serialize hash this this is the only difference i see right here this thing called header which is the mining hash plus the nonce flipped around that's your s and then it does s plus c mix which is mix hash but i got lucky did not get lucky ah the following okay i feel like we need to deserialize the hash because we have a serialized hash does this work there's a deserialized hashing look like cannot import cannot import name decode hex from rlp you tell us we're up youtube oh real great now there's like seven million conflicts and now block header object is not subscribed now we don't have the code hex anymore what should i make on silv i about broke even silv was not a great buy but you know i still think i still i'm still hodling i i think you know there's big hope but you know i got carried away once and i thought about being a day trader and then i stopped being a day trader the closest i ever came to smoking crack was trading bitcoins on bit max at 100x margin so you know that's when that's the day i became a no pointer that's the day oh word bites good i know how many of those we have i think this should all work now do my serialized hash functions up okay when i deserialize the hash i get that crap what's just weird is i don't think i can add that to this even though that's what you would think that's what the code looks like it does yeah concat con can't concat list to bite doesn't that look like what that does here this is before the serialized hash yeah that doesn't look right it looks like they're sha-256s huh they're not standard shot houses eh let's go to that f hashtags hmm oh no that doesn't make sense this code just doesn't really make sense right it's like this thing that's outputted is mixed digest what does that plus mean you know what i mean like it doesn't make sense combine the header and nods into a 64-bit seat 64 byte c okay that's right i don't think it's that so this is different what's hash words though oh okay that just serializes and deserializes the ash useless crap oh wait maybe it's not hang on all right let's just we've copy and pasted enough let's just keep copying and pasting this down here one type has no waves objective why is it returning none oh okay so that's a yeah okay okay okay i have hope i have hope fingers crossed on this let's go why it's supposed to be in range oh did you see where i was block right all right just have add those lists together all right oh here we go so the problem is just here and have begun to get to end so we just make this have serialized that's the same number useless that worked out to the same so this yeah it's just adding the numbers together which is the same um okay well we know this hashimoto light function works it's called edhash now is there a spec documentation check compute cash notes tag time okay pack hash and knots together into the first 40 bytes of s mix so i remember reading these like d serialized hash things and serialized hash things and i was like you know it's just kind of um italian programming so this is fine some academic we wanted to deal with numbers numbers because you get the same answer that's the difference i want i don't think i'm gonna serialize hash okay that's the same answer okay all right let's see what we're doing wrong okay so s mix bites is pack cash it runs together into the first 40 bytes okay that's right okay fix endian 64.

Nods together okay i don't know if that if that's what fixed endy at 64 means oh don't talk to me about usman don't don't don't burns let me down burn sucks i learned from you guys never bet burns i was like oh it's like mr burns for the simpsons and then i thought about that a little bit more and i was like you know that guy can't fight i don't know why i thought that you know just just yeah my friend bet was mom by decision and um lost two so you know everyone lost in that fight mix digest i don't get it that's the mix digest right just print out the whole thing confirm it really does equal the mix hash the mining hash is the same right okay no we got half power on tv how are we doing over here on the exchange all right all right close that spread nine gigahashes love seeing transactions use cheaper all right why doesn't this work i'm doing the same thing header mining hash cash i shouldn't need it's just related to the data set lookup crap we don't need any of that because s doesn't change makes extend s yeah that's great we have the mix digest s plus c-max okay do we not use hashimoto anymore what is gath use how does gath implement this i have decked on it here that's called go theory okay here we go hashimoto light hashimoto lite right here in consensus f algorithm okay combine header and nonce into a 64 byte seed finery little endian put you in 64 for nonce compute the cac 512 of the seed and then your pen seed to this digest which is the mix hash and then run keck 256 on the c dependent to the digest seed equals crypto cac 512 seed shot one with a mining hash i tried flipping it both ways so it can't be the ending of that we can confirm this has length 40 0.40 we can confirm this has length 64.

Um i mean i guess we can confirm the length of this to 96 which matches 64 plus 32 right there it matches what we see there digest is common hash length seed is the output of that c doesn't change nothing special happens if i use hashimoto light okay the only thing i can think is that we're not using hashimoto the ethereum switch did ethereum switch hash functions new legacy 12. cash has passed right through nonsense passed right through um oh okay change some stupid crap this doesn't work i don't get it it seems so simple i'm reading the code here python hashimoto life okay let's try let's just try this i i don't you know this stuff can't be right we can't just guess we're never gonna get it if for gas mix they're ex oring it with something oh it's been superseded by f hash okay which is right here which is exactly what i've copied from i mean it's maybe possible that my shot my shot 3 is wrong but i doubt it i got a different answer when i ran it elsewhere block non-splock mix hash um there we go at python spec code runs on python 2 fails on python 3.

Great uh unicode objects okay prefixes for python three i think that page had to fix it no it doesn't work but these ones do i have 5.21 here no model name shopper do i have pip 2 no i don't great oh okay let's have to fix this fix these might just work import the codex and the code objects must be encoded see maybe someone updated it for python 3. no one updated python3 why doesn't it work though it looks like the only functions that were broken oh this serialized cache thing maybe that no okay strings okay we're gonna make cash oh where's the c dash that's seed hash ah here we go and the z pad is not defined that's fine prepare full data set could take a few hours oh my god okay hopefully i can try from app hash import hashimoto lite as hashimoto like python live python object cannot be interpreted as integer well at least i understand that error and object is not subscriptable oh because cash is something totally different this is terrible this is really terrible someone has to have written this somewhere let me check optimism is no okay grip that crap all right all right we got a link here you're telling me this one works in python 3.

Okay oh i tried to make it work for python 3 and it might work great i don't think this is right how many viewers we got how many viewers we got and how many you still don't know how to fix this hmm how many viewers we got i don't have that on my computer you're trying to buy pizza with a coin you know about the guy who bought first bitcoin for pizza wow six six thirty nine well some of you guys are liars damn ten thousand bitcoins yo i'd become a coiner if someone would give me ten thousand bitcoins all right judging by um you know consensus i believe in consensus algorithms and i believe it's 639.

Oh god we're gonna make this work boys we're gonna make it work generating cash from block number and seed are incorrect and outdated oh dude that fixed it yeah check that out have needed oh yeah yeah yo that fixed it yo yo that's sick yo yo that was sick boys that was sick all right all right um we needed some cackack yo this goes for minting twitch guys i can't mint twitch i have bad news i have bad news i don't think i don't think i made it mintable i don't think i did that you guys will have to disassemble the contract and take a look you know i was using shot three instead of cac hack and i still don't really know the difference but so you see how this number is small now yo this is great that's so that's gonna be so easy to write on the chain and i don't think there's a way to fake it i guess technically technically you have to verify that the mix hash came from the nonce but no one suggested that oh this guy yeah yeah the earthwiki are outdated for free to get source it can be seen the following hash functions are used instead yeah buddy no floor is clean boys the floor is clean all right i'm pretty happy with that the next thing to figure out is gonna be if if this is actually enough let's okay you know what we can we can do a little bit of uh work on it okay so this well you're just looking like yeah here's how many zeros there are okay so that requires like 40 bits of work and that's even just for for f yeah so this has to do at least right here it's doing 2 to the 48 cha threes i mean it's not really right if this is all we verify and i think verifying the other thing is too hard we can definitely verify this yeah cool all right so we'll give you a summary you know we're trying we're trying to communicate better uh right here on the george hearts twitch stream we're trying to make all of you understand why it is that this stuff matters because the why matters boy is the what no that's a lie and it doesn't really matter but i'll tell you just because you know first of all your chip and will tell you i really wish i had more avocado but i don't so salsa you know i have some pasta sauce probably good to have chips left okay so all the code that you saw me right here tonight wow lin bint gifting subs i should explain things to people more okay we're just having chips and pasta sauce that's that's i don't have dinner tonight yo are you a speculator that's not as good as i thought it was gonna be nah i'm never having kids ma'am the singularity's coming you know i couldn't bring kids into that world it's like building like um it's like building c computers with intel cpus you know that's how obsolete they're gonna be um oh dominoes do you accept cheap eath oh you don't okay also do you have a copy of battle toads no no battle toads yeah um yo yo yo make that quiznos except c uh mean that's a great meme oh you know what it wasn't really bad i'm gonna i'm gonna eat the rest of these chips and then we're gonna get some more pasta sauce no lex part three that i know maybe next year i already have my visit with flex this year we'll do lex part three when it's time to promote the gb crowd sale um okay so what we discovered tonight is that we can do at least some verification on the blocks now i'm not sure this is all the verification 48 bits for the ethereum network does seem a little bit low but it's still pretty expensive so we can write what we wrote here even though it looks like we can write all this block header stuff in solidity and then when we write it in solidity we can deploy it to the cheap chain and then we can have bridge submit the l1 hashes the l1 block headers into the cheap chain which will verify that they're correct um this is actually going to take way less time than i thought i think we can maybe even do it on the next stream um yeah next stream not this trip maybe i'll stream tomorrow maybe we'll do tomorrow and what i have to do no plans tomorrow during i'm going to that tomorrow so i'm going to rewrite what i wrote here in python but in solidity and then bridge.pi is going to submit the ethereum blocks into split into into gb and we're going to have a copy of the ethereum like state transitions in chibi as well as the blocks we'll also be able to use the blocks we can use then merkle proofs to prove that transactions are in the state and this stuff should all be uh available and indexed on cheapy because it's so cheap to add state to the cheap ethereum chain that's good chips uh yeah submit the hash verify the hash verify that was hard to generate uh add up the total number of difficulty used to generate it and then figure out which is the hardest chain and then we'll stay on that chain even if geth i think they go slightly out of sync it's okay um but yeah and then we'll have to work out how much value this is actually securing doing the uh doing the verification like this it may not actually be that much value and then you're going to have to just wait for more block confirmations your block confirmations can depend based on the value no this bridge the bridge that i'm talking about now think about it as a very simple implementation of geth but on l2 so it's a very simple guest implementation that runs on cheapy um someone feeds in the block header from l1 and puts it on the cheap network remember this is cheap to do requires very little gas so it's a good deal yeah and then you'll be able to do proofs you'll be able to query the trusted l1 contract for the states and you'll be able to do proofs on that now the direction from l1 to l2 will be free the l2 to l1 direction is going to charge fees it's going to charge fees and those fees are going to be distributed to the cheap gov token holders because we can't do the same trick on l1 if we try to do the same thing to get from l2 to l1 51 attacking the l2 chain is easy so somebody could generate fake headers uh for relatively little money for the l2 chain but to generate fake headers to the l1 chain is expensive it's equivalent to a 51 attack not exactly equivalent because we're not checking that the nonce actually produces the mix hash but if we're verifying the mixed hashes at least this is giving us some confirmation that we are following the correct chain um and we'll have to do the math on like how hard that actually is uh actually we have that's i know the first letter of that is let's just say code hex you know what i want okay so this is how many bits 52 bits uh sha23 hash hashtag it's actually two shot threes uh saying on gps um oh okay so it looks like a single gpu can get about a gigahash of sha-3s so that's um and a single gpu can do about a 100 mega hash of uh of eth so it's about 10 to 1.

So this doesn't seem too bad so if we have 52 bits um let's say 2 to the 52 divided by it's not actually 10 to the nine but let's just say it's done to the nine ah two to the 52 divided by ten to the nine okay so it would require uh this many gpu seconds to generate one of these fake yeah yeah this is plenty secure um if you think of a gpu let's just talk about let's say gpus cost 50 cents an hour uh seconds to hours wait that's not too much oh no wait it's like is that a lot of money or not no no that's that's actually pretty reasonable right because 51 attack networks for cheap well that's how long it takes to make one block so let's say let's say that's just this is the cost to brute forcing one block uh well i mean we know the cost of an ethereum block the cost of a marginal cost equals marginal utility so you just look at how much a miner makes and that's probably how much it costs um i mean there's people making a little off of that but okay so yeah once we're getting up to once we have like basically every block confirmation can secure a thousand dollars in value so if you're trying to move yeah that that makes sense wow this is why gp classic gets uh it's 51 this is why etc gets 51 attack so much yeah i mean either way a simpler way to think about this is just like you get about 10x the hash power if you're doing just shot threes so this looks like it's it's 10x less uh it's 10x less secure but good enough good enough i mean because because everything about cheap cheap eat is a thousand x less right like if this were 100 xls i should be a little scared of this for a thousand x less the security model would break but if it's just 10x less and that's all the giga hash all the shot giga hashes you can do with a single gpu then um this is secure uh well so here what do you think no yourself to prove no i just wouldn't do it it wouldn't change much because you'd still be it's still like it's not like you can spend coins you don't have right because you're still going to need you're going to need a merkle proof saying that that thing was included um in the chain and i don't even know how you'd i guess you could lie and say it was included in the chain even if it wasn't uh yeah i mean the trick to this is going to be depending on how much you want to withdraw it depends on how long you're going to have to wait moving small amounts of value can happen quickly moving large amounts of value we'll just have to have more block confirmations which i think is fine and we can always yeah i mean this becomes even trivial to extend the the democracy stuff to this okay this is gonna work i'm confident in this approach at least for securing um you know very reasonable amounts of value uh i know the the exchange cheap is on um makes you wait uh 30 block confirmations so this would secure 30 so so for transactions up to 37 000 uh that would be secure um and yeah you know i'm happy with that uh doesn't it make large transactions and feasible well yeah i mean if you're trying to do a transaction where you're moving a million dollars that's going to be like one percent of the cheap east network so if you wanted a million dollars you're going to have to wait for uh a thousand block confirmations but that's still not that bad um let's say a block happens i think it's like 20 seconds yeah so if you want to deposit one percent of the whole cheap ethereum network you'd have to wait six hours for the confirmation so reasonable so reasonable um yeah we just make people wait larger more more block the block confirmations can depend on the value uh so the the the withdrawal contract won't let you withdraw and just sum the total value that's been like locking to a certain state for the withdrawal yeah that's easy to do all right um so the idea of this is what this is going to let us do we need the other way as well um so this direction will let us do the crowd sale in a completely decentralized way uh the crowdsale can just be sending ethereum to a contract and then you get both the tokens on l1 and the cheap ethernet l2 where this direction of the bridge works uh again you'll have to buy into the crowd sales somewhat slowly for the value so this this will limit like if the crowd sale really is um say say 20 million dollars and cheap value it's uh going to be that times 20.

So so the crowd sale is going to run what is that like a week yeah graduates for a week right and there's a limit to how fast you can buy it which is kind of cool because also it prevents you know uh whales from from buying a lot which you never want uh so yeah there'll be a limit to how much we can trust the bridge uh but that doesn't actually depend on the crowd sale the crowd we can just you'll keep the state around but before the crowd sale happens we'll have this to play with a whole lot and we'll be able to query things from eth on gp ah yo we don't pump seats guys it's really it's not a speculative asset uh yeah so yeah we had a bit engineering work to do to make to make this thing work but it should be simple like this should be the simplest l2 solution ever this direction of the bridge is literally the simplest you can do i wrote in the bridge spec the website i stole the idea from um it's this stateless spv ah it's it's it's on the it's on the uh the bridge page so that's the deposit direction uh the withdrawal direction is fancier but it should still be pretty good i think the trick to making our withdrawal system way better than everybody else's is gonna be we're gonna do all this voting on l2 and then you will submit the entire l2 block onto eth to do the vote uh you could hypothetically make fake l2 blocks but i'm pretty sure that's unprofitable um i don't even know why i said 2x so it's the same it's the same idea that's true on all of these systems uh polka dot does this uh i think incognito does this too you have this you have this over collateralized asset which secures the value on the in this case it's the whole of the chain ah what if c trades on an open market at not the well so i talk about this here and will it stay cheap so if seath is trading cheaper than one one thousand thief it's great it's super cheap and we're happy um if it starts to trade for higher than that uh which it shouldn't because without speculators there's plenty of seeds to go around there's no way i should start trading for that what can happen is the gas price can go up but if it does start trading for that this is why we have the premium um cheap is pre-mined it has a 25 million coin pre-mine do not speculate on cheap eat uh we are going to use it in a you know i i lay out how the the the uh pre mine is going to be used but all of this all this you know all the hell to fund and the yolo dollars if the price goes above that we're just going to put downward pressure on it um and if it really breaks if it breaks through we're just going to fork it if it breaks through we're going to we're going to move to to cheap 2.

Uh so don't speculate no i don't think relying on please don't speculate is risky i think basically just saying if you do speculate oh if you are a speculator cheap eat is not for you please go the away this coin is not going to the moon it's staying bright here on earth you will not make money on cheap without working hard yourself to provide l2 value to the people cheap is a terrible investment it has cheap right in the name you will never make money huddling cheapy it's a utility token in the truest sense of the idea and then if you get people i mean like look at the game stop thing right you'll get people who just spend money and gotta ride the train down man we wrote it up we're gonna write it down yeah and you know what if people want to do that you can ride your speculators right down um will mining cheap get less profitable so mining should exist in an equilibrium with the asset price uh and i did the math on it i should check the math i'll put this in the white paper but um i should uh i'll check the math to make to make sure that i did it right with the price being what it is and the mining rewards being what they are there should be enough security on the chain to make 51 attacks like like not stupid 51 percent of taxes someone really wants to 51 attack the network they can but then they shouldn't be able to get any serious value from it uh and this is why you need some miners but you don't need a ton of miners basically the the 51 attack uh window ends when the state of the l2 chain will be committed to l1 um so uh you know this is the part that has to be thought through a lot more uh like i said the bridge that we're designing today is the easy half of the bridge the bridge going the other way is the hard part the l2 to l1 the l2 the l1 to l2 bridge is definitely going to work in theory and i'm very excited about it um am i worried about the sec no we're not selling a speculative asset right like like it's it's it's ethereum is more of a speculative asset than this uh you know the sec gets involved and you're like oh pump my token to the moon oh get in the crowd so early i'll give you 10x discount oh have a listed ex-die yeah i was looking at the next eye today uh is similar it's it's it has some similarities with x-die like this this whole idea um a few things i think xda did wrong uh first off why are you depending on die die is based on fedcoin scam um is eth going up or is fedcoin going down ah also like i don't really understand how their model works they talk about their stake token but it's it's it's all it's all it's all federer it's all like that it's all delegated so you have to have a really large amount of the stake tokens in order to actually be a staker uh i think we could do better than that and then this is questionable um so synthetics uses the same model uh again you you have to think through it more but like like synthetic securing your asset by you staking your synths and getting 15 18 gains like this also is like you should again i'm not with any speculative assets right um so the idea of cheap gov would be that you just make money on fees right instead of instead of minting new of the token uh you make money on fees this is what auger does for reporting right you don't you don't mint more rep when a new decision happens um what happens when eath goes to 10k and now seath is 10.

Well i think 10 is very reasonable but if heath goes to a million dollars and sees his uh a thousand well it should all scale perfectly right and this is another reason why we need some minors you should be able to make cheap wreath i think someone already has a domain name um so you can make an l3 solution and you should be able to copy the bridge perfectly and do all the same stuff now of course you know it becomes hard to use i don't really think you have to you can also maybe you can make cheaper eth as an l2 maybe you can make something with a million x peg but i don't think so i think if you did that with draws would never be profitable right like that that ratio between the two chains is the reason my stuff works um if you're not in that range like like it's like the solution for one hard drive look different from 10 hard drives looks different from 100 hard drives looks different from a thousand hard drives like the infrastructure looks different at different scale factors um i don't doubt eath is gonna you know eventually hit 10k and then yeah chibi's 10 box stuff is still fine uh yeah i mean tp should stay it should stay close i think i don't know look this stuff's all very new i haven't really thought a lot of it through yet i might not even do this do i really want to get involved with a crowd sale and a token like not really uh if i had a better way to do it i'll think maybe there's better ways to do it that just don't involve a crowd sale at all uh that don't involve the nice thing about this l1 to l2 bridge is i can build it uh maybe i'll stream tomorrow maybe i won't but i can build it it seems like in a way that's very simple and the chibi people can start using it today no no collateralization required no actual value required you're only going to be spending cheap eats to maintain this bridge which uh you know spend cheap eat like it's it's not don't hold cheap look i really don't think so with respect to the sec you have something called the howie test um the value of a transaction for one of its participants is dependent upon the other's work right um if a person invests his money in a common enterprise and is led to expect profit solely from the efforts of the promoter or a third party right this is what i mean about cheap really not being a speculative asset uh you can't really make money on it right think about it if the price of cheap beef is capped at at one to a thousand each well you can only kind of lose money because if you want that same exposure that cheap eat would give you just buy eth uh now you know azith money is either security i don't think it's i think again it becomes hard to make any of this stuff you know when i see stuff like this i mean the sec can start there and actually not even this xdi seems pretty cool if the sec wants to wants to go somewhere um no offense but you know i think i think there there's a much bigger fish to fry than than poor little cheapy if the sec didn't the sec said eath is not a security now um in the crowd sale eth was a security well they didn't make a statement about whether he was a security again you know if you want to start doing crowd sales and tokens i'm gonna have to hire a lawyer you know and deal with that but um i think as far as crypto projects go uh this is very uh non i guess it's infrastructure man what do i do i build infrastructure uh how much money have i made off cheap negative negative uh whatever i'm paying for digital ocean you know um so yeah you know if if cheap becomes a money-making endeavor we'll have a lawyer i'm going to deal with a lawyer see this is this is the whole problem right like honestly this is why i like speculators and ruin crypto it's all so cool but then like you watch what happened with the icos and you're like the sec actually should some of these people you know i don't know i don't actually think that i think i think the sec probably shouldn't exist but i think i think buyer beware caveat on tour but you know there's a real lotta there's a there's a real lot of pump token scams like when you look at the value of some of these things uh not that one actually no one's not that bad when you look at the values oh my god oh my god that's did i see she's them i hope this is the oh oh they raised over 1.3 billion to an unregistered ongoing digital asset securities offer i hate ripple uh full disclosure i hate ripple i like tyler i think tether is an honest business as long as they're running it honestly which i don't know about uh look coinbase look at coinbase like coinbase i love coinbase um hopefully goku is not goku's all right goku's all right it is where it's at um you know but if i would look if i was trying to get rich off crypto there's a lot of ways to do it you guys know the ways to do it one of the one of them one of them hits ethereum every every couple weeks it's like oh look 55 million dollars disappeared from the uh what's that what that stupid there was one that got hacked like two weeks ago it was like oh they casted a malicious spell and it was like it was called like like like harry potter eve it was harry potter either something no no no no no what was it what was it harry potter eth wizard spell you couldn't believe this was real no look there's no sellout in cheapies that's honestly what it is the cheapy crowd sale if it happens like thanks for your money bros we created some value first before we do the crowd sale no safe no pre-pre-sale you know actually i think if you really want to do the crowd sale you want to do you i'll build the l2 l1 stuff first i wouldn't feel okay doing it until i built it and i built both sides of the i built both sides of the bridge official response yo goku spell your better thank you thank you the official right no we have greek we can read hater comments we're not gonna we're not gonna read hater comments um no yeah no look before before i actually do a crown cell i would do i would build both sides and then the thing would all go live no safts um we'll see you guys know cheat piece about fun if we're having fun we'll do it but if we're not having fun i'm out you know what the biggest mistake i made why did i take money for comma you know i should have just funded it yeah i think i could have you know you don't take money it's not the biggest mistake and it's fine like look i i complain about andreessen's fine um but there's something about like bootstrapping that's just it's real the the the funding markets are cheating like you know i'm probably gonna raise we're probably gonna raise money again for for probably more money for comma this year i mean we can use it to grow faster khan's doing really well uh i have time you know con is doing so well i have time to work on cheap uh you made a token on cheap i'll buy it yo send me a cheap swap link i'll buy your token i love token you buy some nfts really want to get my hands on some entities especially if they're taylor swift related um yeah of course if i could go back in time would i still start comma of course what else was i going to do with my life you know i think it's really cool i think it may have kind of exceeded like you know i have limits as a person right i'm uh i have 80d right now we're still hiring someone for navigation we have a lot to do still before that you know there's a lot to do to just tighten everything up uh i i think i think at some point we passed a point where the car companies are gonna have to use open pilot they just don't know it yet uh there's a lot of work to still do there's a lot of work to still do unfortunately it's not really the work that i'm great at um i'm good at like spinning narratives like that's what you do kind of as a startup founder uh look at cheap right like it's a narrative you're playing you're playing uh oh jim mentioned yesterday that's cool uh we can we can we can make the uh it's the talking portion of the of the uh stream now um this is me next to the cheap eath logo where's the cheap logo it's over there yeah right there uh you know what i'm gonna do tonight i'm gonna watch some criminal videos i love these videos like their videos and interrogations you just watch people like in the most stressful time in their life and you're like damn bro i hope that's never me i hope that's never be you know what i learned from the interrogation videos never kill anybody you're gonna regret it good advice to everybody out there you know don't kill people do you want to know to kill people ah jesus on youtube yeah yeah yeah i know he's so good there's like a patreon to subscribe to my my friend got me into them um no yeah i think that that uh we'll announce it we have two executives now at comma uh if we do a raise we'll like announce it make it official um thomas has a leadership team i'm just the oversight guy i make sure that things never get you know moved away from the original vision which is to solve self-driving cars while delivering shippable intermediaries um oh jim has a new lex oh yeah i saw that i saw that come up i thought it was the old one cool hopefully watch that tonight um yeah cheap all right don't pay people to kill people either there was this girl who did that and she had a bad time too it was like a cop and she was like dahlia diplodo uh what else we got any other questions i'm in the cloud boys you all know i'm in the cloud where can you spend see i think people are selling clubhouse invites on the discord for it not enough liquidity all right you're sending me a cheap swap link i'll see what i got techy token all right all right yo you got to put in liquidity you didn't put any liquidity in the pool you you gotta you gotta put your token in the pool for cats and i had liquidity man anyone could korean let's look at your token let's use the other blockers boy this block support works better yo by the way i'm just gonna this guy maintains cheap swap and that block explorer i'm just gonna send over i don't know here's not two thousand let's not go crazy but here's here's here's 200gb how's he doing ah 3k bro good i hope people are donating the spirit of cheap is generosity you gave cheap to a homeless guy yo that's great that's great ah did i feel lost in my early twenties i'm not talking about like that man i was here to talk about cheap ethan my journey as an entrepreneur you know that's right i'm gonna post on linkedin about how now i can mentor other entrepreneurs in their journey off you want mentorship can't even buy that phone call you know why because i can't mentor you'd be a lie there's one school out there and it's a school of hard knocks ah yeah show for seats man but make sure to tell people that it's not a pump that's a great place for you to practice your ethereum skills look at how much i've learned about ethereum doing this tons of stuff um i hope i'm gonna do some more work for optimism you know they have the real l2 solution being lost is part of the journey that's right uh what's that uh um no it's not this one's the other one all the glory years yeah when the world finally ends only then will our destinies doubt us will we spin off the edge of our steps and our couches when just the hidden songs are left in our cassettes and our albums can we expect that something better surrounds us when we exit our houses the death of my childhood would unfold in notches it was a cave and social comet of a stolen promise so how'd we grow up but not grow up into who we said we'd grow up into we knew we had someday we'd grow up beyond us and all right so it's not mine that's not mine don't know and then you wrote a lot of songs that sound identical to that one uh not all who wander are lost right all right nominal existence of a temporal state ever present and yet constantly fleeting can i do the fast part of rap god all right let's try it um um singing to a man will he play piano man oh man that was a 24 7 special on the cable channel so ray j went straight to the radio station the very next day hey fab i'mma kill you lyrics coming at you with supersonic speed uh sama llama dumalama you assuming i'm a human what i gotta do to get it through to you i'm superhuman innovative and i made a rubber so that anything you say is ricocheting off of me and it'll glue to you i'm devastating more than ever demonstrating how to give a audience a feeling like it's levitating never hating on another haters for elevating so that they could fail out oh that's so i'm devastating whether they're never demonstrating how to give a audience to feeling like it's levitating never fading in another haters if they're ever waiting for them they could say a fella they'll be celebrating cause i know the way to get them motivated i make elevating music you make elevator music oh that's that's oh yeah oh something like that oh no uh it's not as fast but i remember i remember one day sitting practicing this even when this came out i'm practicing that lately it seems if it's it's me against the world like it was before my life became a movie and they used to use my mug and failure to cheese me with but i flipped that strip like gay refilla painkillers to pop the lid off that safety seal that made me feel amazing navy seal of bravery and if i may reiterate i ain't even need a script oh you see it's hard um all right thanks guys thank you for watching tonight's stream uh chill for cheap but nachos is a speculative asset because it has utility that's right thank you good night enjoy your friday

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